The Spring Framework is widely used as a Java EE framework to build websites. Dependency Injection and Aspect-Oriented Programming are the ideas on which the Spring framework is built. If you know how to use the Spring Framework, you can get hired for a Java job better. It is essential to know about spring interview questions.
Are you preparing for a job interview where the Spring framework will play a significant role? In this article, we have compiled a list of frequently asked questions (and answers) for spring and spring boot interviews so you can prepare thoroughly. This blog lists the most recent Spring Framework interview questions to help you do well in your following interview.
What are Spring Interview Questions?
We’ve divided the spring interview questions and answers article into the broad categories listed below for your study:
- Freshers ( with 2-3 years of experience)
- Intermediate (with 5+ years of experience)
- Advanced ( with 10 years of experience)
These spring interview questions are relatively easy and based on basic spring framework knowledge.
These spring interview questions and answers are relatively straightforward, based on foundational knowledge of the spring framework.
If you have experience building applications with the Spring framework, some of the answers to these Java and Spring interview questions may be useful to you. Still, it’s an excellent way to prepare for the spring interview.
Now let’s get to the spring interview questions
Spring Interview Questions and Answers For Freshers
Q. What exactly is the Spring Framework?
Spring is the most popular framework for building Java Enterprise Edition applications. Also, Spring’s core features can be used to construct any Java application.
On top of the Jakarta EE platform, we build different web apps with its extensions. We can also use its dependency injection features in simple applications that stand independently.
Q. What are the advantages of using Spring?
Spring aims to make developing Jakarta EE easier, so let’s look at the pros:
- Lightweight: Using the framework in development adds a small amount of work.
- Inversion of Control (IoC): The Spring container connects objects that depend on each other instead of creating or looking for things that rely on each other.
- Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) – Spring uses AOP to separate business logic from system services.
- IoC container – manages the life cycle of Spring Bean and the configurations for each project.
- MVC framework is used to make web apps or RESTful web services that can respond with XML or JSON.
- Transaction management – reduces the amount of repetitive code in JDBC operations, file uploading, etc., by using Java annotations or a Spring Bean XML configuration file.
- Exception Handling: Spring makes it easy to turn technology-specific exceptions into unchecked exceptions by giving you an API.
Q. What Kind of Spring Subprojects Are you Aware Of? Briefly describe them.
- The core is a critical module that gives the framework its most essential parts, like IoC or DI JDBC. It lets you make a JDBC abstraction layer, which means you don’t have to write JDBC code for different vendor databases.
- ORM integration provides layers for popular object-relational mappings APIs like JPA, JDO, and Hibernate.
- The web is a web-based integration module that lets you upload files in parts, use Servlet listeners, and use web-based application context.
- MVC framework is a web module that uses the Model View Controller design pattern.
- AOP module implements aspect-oriented programming that lets you define clean method interceptors and pointcuts.
Q. What is “injecting dependency”?
Dependency injection is part of the inversion of control (IoC). It is a general idea that we shouldn’t make objects by hand but should instead describe how they should be made. Then, if necessary, an IoC container will create the required classes.
Q. What does “spring boot” mean?
Spring Boot is a project that gives you a set of frameworks already set up to cut down on repetitive configuration. So, with the least amount of code, we can get a Spring application up and running.
Q. How are BeanFactory and ApplicationContext different?
BeanFactory is an interface for a container that makes bean instances and manages them. When getBean() is called, beans are created when needed. This is the default implementation.
ApplicationContext, on the other hand, is an interface for a container that holds all of the information, metadata, and beans in the application. It also extends the BeanFactory interface, but the default implementation makes beans as soon as the application starts. This behavior can be changed for a single bean, though.
Spring Interview Questions and Answers For Intermediate Level
Q. How would you define “bean wiring”?
Bean wiring describes the phenomenon whereby beans are combined within the spring container.
While wiring beans, the Spring container should know which beans are necessary and how they interact with one another. This information is given through configuration in the Java code, XML, annotations, or a mix of all three.
Q. Provide details on how to initiate an application context in Spring.
Both XML and @Configuration can be used to specify the application context.
The new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext is used to build the ApplicationContext after the configuration is completed in one of the methods mentioned above.
There are two options for locating the XML files;
- One is to use the ClassPathXmlApplicationContext.
- AnnotationConfigApplicationContext is an alternative method.
Q. Proxy pattern in Spring AOP: explain
One common type of design pattern is to use “proxies,” which are objects that look like their original counterparts but actually add extra, hidden functionality to the original.
In Spring AOP, the AOP framework builds a proxy at runtime to carry out the aspect contracts.
Standard JDK dynamic proxies are AOP proxies that automatically proxy any interface(s). Spring AOP also works with CGLIB proxies, which are used when proxy classes are used instead of interfaces. CGLIB proxies are used automatically whenever a business entity misses an interface implementation.
Q. What is the Hibernate Object Relational Mapping Framework?
Turning objects in an application’s domain model into relational database tables is called “object-relational mapping” (ORM).
The most popular object-relational mapping (ORM) framework in Java is called Hibernate.
Q. Explain the two spring-based entry points into Hibernate.
Using a Hibernate template and callback to implement inversion of control
AOP Interceptor Node Integration and Further Development of Hibernate DAO Support.
Spring Interview Questions For Advanced Level
Q. What exactly is a spring bean factory? What are some examples of implementation?
Q. Which parts of a bean’s life cycle can you change or have control over?
Q. How does the Spring framework let you use different bean scopes, and what does it mean when you do?
Q. What does DI (dependency injection) mean? Can you explain the many forms of DI?
Q. The definition of a spring application also explains how this works in the real world.
Q. What exactly does the term “stereotype” mean in the context of spring?
Q. How do you put Spring Bean’s properties into a project?
Q. How can a class be set up as a Spring Bean? What options are there?
You can also look back at any classes you’ve taken to ensure you know enough about the topic to talk about it well. If you just graduated, the interviewer won’t test you on more advanced material. Instead, it would be best if you focused on mastering the basics.
Second, you should answer as many questions as possible confidently, even if you only know the answers to a few. Have faith in yourself and your abilities as you go into the interview.
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