What is Cryptography: A Guide to Security

We can thank cryptography for our safety. Since the number of data breaches has increased, it is now more important than ever. In this blog, we’ll look at “What is cryptography?“. Following this, we will also learn about the types of cryptography. Afterwards, we will be covering various other essential aspects of cryptography.

First, let us gain a brief understanding of cryptography.

Cryptography: Definition

Cryptography aims to ensure that only the people who are supposed to read and use the information in a message or transmission can decipher and use it. So important data will get into the right hands. The word “cryptography” comes from the words “crypt,” which means “hidden,” and “graphy,” which means “writing.” Using mathematical concepts and a set of rule-based calculations called algorithms, messages in Cryptography are changed in ways that make it hard to figure out what they say. The security of private information, online activities, and financial transactions like credit card and debit card purchases depend on these algorithms used to make cryptographic keys, sign digital documents, and check them. 


Features of Cryptography

  • Confidentiality:

Information is only accessible to the person for whom it was made, and no one else can access it.

  • Integrity: 

Information can’t be changed while stored or sent from the sender to the intended recipient without notice.

  • Non-repudiation: 

The person who made or sent the information can’t say that he didn’t mean to send it.

  • Authentication:

Both the sender’s and the recipient’s names are confirmed. As well as where the information came from and where it is going.

Moving forward, let’s discuss the various types of Cryptography.

Types of Cryptography

There are three primary types of cryptography:

  • Symmetric Key Encryption:

It is a way to encrypt and decrypt messages using a single key that both the sender and the receiver know. Symmetric Key Systems are faster and easier to use, but the sender and receiver must safely trade keys. The most common symmetric key encryption systems are the Data Encryption System (DES) and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).

  • Hash Operations:

In this algorithm, there is no use of keys. Calculating a fixed-length hash value from the plain text makes it impossible to figure out what was in the plain text. Many operating systems use hash functions to encrypt passwords.

  • Asymmetric Key Encryption:

This system uses a pair of keys to encrypt and decrypt information. Encryption is done with the recipient’s public key, and decryption is done with the recipient’s private key. The public key is different from the private key. Even if everyone knows the public key, only the person supposed to get the message can decode it because only he knows the private key. Most people use the RSA algorithm, a type of asymmetric key cryptography.  

Now, let us understand the role of cryptography in cybersecurity.

Also Read:

The Ultimate Network Security Key Cheat Sheet

What is Cryptography in Cybersecurity?

Cybersecurity has become one of the most advanced fields of study. Both cyber security and cryptography are important to each other.

Cryptography is currently used to keep private information, like passwords, safe online. Cybersecurity experts now use it to encourage new ideas, ciphertext, and other security measures that protect business and personal data and keep them separate.

Next, let’s understand the applications of Cryptography.

Applications of Cryptography

Here, we will be discussing four different applications of cryptography.

Electronic signatures:

Electronic signatures are used to sign documents like handwritten signatures in the digital world. Using public key cryptography, digital signatures can be made and checked with the help of encryption. Electronic signatures are legal in many places, and their use is growing quickly. 


Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum often use cryptography to keep transactions safe, stop fraud, and keep the integrity of the network. Using complex algorithms and cryptographic keys, transactions can only be changed or faked easily. 

End-to-End Encryption:

End-to-end encryption protects two-way communications like email, instant messages, and video calls. Even if the message is encrypted, only the people who should be able to read it will be able to. End-to-end encryption is commonly used in messaging apps like WhatsApp and Signal, giving users high security and privacy.

Security passwords for computers:

Cryptography is used for computer security, especially when making and keeping track of passwords. When users log in, their password is hashed and compared to stored other hashes. A password is hashed and encrypted before it is stored. Even if a hacker gets into the passwords database, they won’t be able to read the passwords because this method encrypts them.


Consumer protection is at an all-time high because people worry more and more about losing their privacy. The field of study known as cryptography focuses on the practice of encrypting and decrypting data for security purposes. Both the sending party and the recipient must have access to the ciphertext.

Undeniably, Cybersecurity has become one of the most advanced fields of study.

Cryptography saves the day at these important points. Hence, we can keep our private information safe if we know the basics of cryptography.

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