In this article we will study Software testing Interview Questions and also in brief about Manual testing interview questions.
Software testing is a phase of the software development life cycle that ensures the software is correct and functions correctly. Every software development project includes testing.
In essence, software testing attempts to find a way to ensure that the program works as it should and does not do things that are not desired. The main goal of software testing is to gain sufficient confidence that the software being tested produces the correct result for a given input.
When learning about software testing, it’s important to remember that testing only sometimes improves product quality. Or that extensive testing only sometimes implies high-quality software. Testing is a quality indicator because it informs the people who created the software about what they need to know to fix problems that arose during testing.
The most common interview questions for a job as a software tester or quality assurance (QA) specialist are covered in this article. It is divided into three sections based on the applicant’s skills. If you recently graduated from college, you may be asked software testing questions for a junior-level job in the fresher’s area.
The advanced testing issues are covered in the “experienced” section, which requires you to understand the testing fundamentals. This section is appropriate for a tester with a few years of experience. Manual based testing questions are provided in the end.
Beginner level Interview questions for freshers
1.What is software testing?
Software testing entails assessing and confirming the functionality of a software product. It verifies that the software product is defect-free and satisfies the anticipated criteria. Testing improves product quality by averting bugs, reducing development expenses, and minimizing performance problems.
2. What are the various testing categories?
The program can be tested in a variety of ways. Software developers perform some testing, while professional quality assurance staff performs others. The various types of software testing are listed below, along with a brief explanation of each.
3. What are the principles of software testing?
Software testing is governed by seven principles:
- Absence of errors fallacy: Even if the software is 99% bug-free, it is unusable if it does not conform to the user’s requirements. Software needs to be bug-free 99% of the time, and it must also meet all customer requirements.
- Testing shows the presence of errors: Testing can verify the presence of defects in software, but it cannot guarantee that the software is defect-free. Testing can minimize the number of defects, but it can’t remove them all.
- Exhaustive testing is not possible: The software cannot be tested exhaustively, which means all possible test cases cannot be covered. Testing can only be done with a select few test cases, and it’s assumed that the software will produce the right output in all cases. Taking the software through every test case will cost more, take more effort, etc., which makes it impractical.
- Defect clustering: The majority of defects are typically found in a small number of modules in a project. According to the Pareto Principle, 80% of software defects arise from 20% of modules.
- Pesticide Paradox: It is impossible to find new bugs by re-running the same test cases over and over again. Thus, updating or adding new test cases is necessary in order to find new bugs.
- Early testing: Early testing is crucial to finding the defect in the software. In the early stages of SDLC, defects will be detected more easily and at a lower cost. Software testing should start at the initial phase of software development, which is the requirement analysis phase.
- Testing is context-dependent: The testing approach varies depending on the software development context. Software needs to be tested differently depending on its type. For instance, an ed-tech site is tested differently than an Android app.
4. What does it mean to perform regression testing on software?
According to the dictionary, regression returns to a previous location or state. In software, regression refers to a feature that used to work but suddenly stopped when a developer added new code or functionality.
Because new features are constantly being added, the software industry has numerous regression issues. Developers do not create these features separately from the rest of the code. Instead, the new code interacts with the old code, causing unexpected changes.
As a result, there is always the risk that introducing new changes will harm an existing feature. Remember that any change can result in regression, no matter how minor.
Regression testing ensures that adding or changing new code does not change how the program operates. It enables the tester to determine whether the old and new codes are compatible.
5.What exactly is exploratory testing?
Consider yourself a tourist in an unfamiliar city. They have two choices for exploring the city.
They must adhere to a map, schedule, or list of places they must visit.
Explore at random by following the roads that lead to new locations.
In the first plan, the tourist adheres to an already established program. Even if they visit well-known locations, they may overlook the city’s most interesting and hidden gems. When using the second method, the traveler walks around the city and may come across strange and foreign places that the itinerary should have included.
Both plans have advantages and disadvantages
When testing software, a software tester is similar to a tourist. Users can either experiment with the software or follow a strict set of test cases to put it through its paces with the given inputs and outputs.
The process of testing software without test scripts or a plan is known as exploratory testing. As the name implies, the tester uses the software like a natural person would. It depicts the appearance of a black-box test.
Exploratory testing allows the tester to interact with the software however they want as long as they follow its instructions. This will enable them to experiment with various features and routes. They need a clear plan of action.
The most critical aspect of exploratory testing is behavior testing. It helps acclimate to new elements of the program. It also provides a high-level view of the system, which aids in evaluating and learning the software quickly.
Exploratory testing may appear random, but it can be highly beneficial when performed by a skilled and knowledgeable tester. Because it is done without any preconceived notions about what software should or should not do, it allows the tester more freedom to discover hidden paths and problems along those paths.
6.How do you explain testing from start to finish?
Testing a software system from beginning to end is known as end-to-end testing. The tester runs the program as if they were the end user. To try a desktop application, for example, the tester would install the program as the user would, launch it, use it as intended, and then observe how it behaved. A web application is the same thing.
End-to-end testing differs significantly from other types of testing, such as unit testing, which is more isolated. End-to-end testing entails testing the software alongside its dependencies and integrations, such as databases, networks, file systems, and third-party services.
7.What exactly is unit testing?
Testing a single piece of code is known as unit testing. A method, a class, or a module could be the unit of code. Unit testing aims to focus on the smallest pieces of code possible so that you can later combine them all to create software that works well.
A unit test executes the code and examines the output to see if it matches what was expected. The unit test was successful if the actual results checked what was expected. Otherwise, it will not work.
This is what distinguishes a good unit test:
- A single piece of functionality should be tested.
- It is all done automatically and can be repeated.
- It should function quickly and provide immediate feedback.
- Unless necessary, it should be kept separate from external dependencies such as the network, database, or file system. You can use the mocking technique to simulate external dependencies while keeping the test code separate.
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8. Inform about an API.
API stands for Application Programming Interface. It allows two pieces of software to communicate with one another. An API hides the inner workings and complexity of a piece of software so that the user only has to worry about the inputs and outputs required to use it.
Instead of writing everything from scratch, developers frequently use third-party libraries when creating new software. An API is a simple way for two pieces of software to communicate.
An API can also be used to provide data to an app so that it can function. Consider creating a weather app that displays the temperature. Instead of developing the technology, you would use the Meteorological Institute’s API to obtain the temperature.
9. What exactly is a test environment?
The test environment consists of the server or computer on which a tester runs their tests. It differs from a development machine in that it attempts to emulate the hardware used to run the software when it is deployed.
When a new software build is ready, the tester updates the test environment and runs the regression test suite. After it passes, the tester moves on to new features to test.
10. Describe how a test coverage tool works.
The code coverage statistic indicates how much of the program’s source code was tested by the test plan. Code coverage testing is similar to product testing. You can use the code coverage tool to track which statements in your source code are being executed. A full report of the pending statements and the percentage of coverage is provided at the conclusion of the final testing.
Software testing Interview questions for experienced
11. What are the various ways to cover, and what exactly is “coverage”?
When testing software, “coverage” refers to how thoroughly the source code is checked. There are three options for covering:
Every line of source code must have been run and tested before a statement can be considered covered.
It ensures that every true/false decision in the source code is tested and executed.
Pathway coverage: By checking this box, we ensure we have tested and completed every possible path through a code section.
What are the benefits of using automated testing methods?
The following are some advantages of automated Testing:
It makes it easier to run multiple test cases and aids in testing a large test matrix.
Parallel execution is possible, which encourages unattended execution, reduces human error by making people more accurate, and saves time and money.
13. What makes Selenium the best tool for automated Testing?
Selenium is a free program that can automatically test web browsers. Because it is open-source, Selenium has a significant advantage over other testing tools because it is free to use. Selenium’s popularity is growing due to a variety of factors, including:
Java, Python, C#, PHP, Ruby, and Perl are all programming languages that can be used to create test scripts.
It can be linked to Jenkins, Maven, and Docker to enable Continuous Testing.
14.What are the different parts of Selenium?
Selenium is composed of several elements, including:
- Selenium development environment (IDE)
- A selenium remote is used to control it (RC)
- Selenium Grid 15 Selenium WebDriver
15. What exactly is XPath?
The language used to search through XML documents is XPath, or XML Path. To find things in Selenium, a key method is required. It includes a path expression as well as several conditions. You can quickly create an XPath script or query to see any element on the page. It is designed to allow you to navigate XML documents and select which aspects, attributes, or other parts of an XML document to process. It also produces reliable locators.
16.What is a test plan? What is it made up of?
A test plan is a living document that the person in charge of testing keeps an eye on and controls. For the project to succeed, a document called a “test plan” must explain the scope and activities of software testing. It’s a plan that tells who, what, when, where, and other details about the testing process.
17.What Does It Mean to Get a Test Report? What is it made up of?
A test report is a written summary of the testing’s goals, methods, and results. It’s essential to write down test results because it makes it easy to estimate test results. It helps decide if the product is ready for market use. It also helps judge the quality of the project and the outcome. In a test report, you need to include the following
- Test Objective
- Project Information
- Test Summary
18. What are the deliverables of a test?
The test deliverables, sometimes called “test artifacts,” are a collection of all the materials given to the stakeholders of a software project during the SDLC. The test’s deliverables are updated, and new ones are made to help it.
19.How do I launch the browser using WebDriver?
The following syntax can be used to launch the Browser:
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();
20. Mention th20e basic components of defect report format.
The basic components of defect report format include:
- Project Name
- Module Name
- Defect detected on
- Defect detected by
- Defect ID and Name
- Snapshot of the defect
- Priority and Severity status
- Defect resolved by
- Defect resolved on
Manual testing Questions and Answers –
21.Exploratory testing: what is it?
Exploratory testing is a practical method that involves testers as much in test execution as in planning. The planning process includes developing a test charter, a brief statement of the objectives, and a potential test strategy for a brief (1 to 2-hour) time-boxed test effort. Test conditions, test cases, and scripts have not been officially documented, as the test design and execution activities are carried out concurrently. This does not preclude the employment of further, more formal testing methods. For instance, the tester might choose to employ boundary value analysis. Still, they will consider and test the most important boundary values without necessarily noting them down. Some notes will be taken to create a report following the exploratory testing session.
22.What is “use case testing”?
In order to identify and execute the functional requirement of an application from start to finish “use case” is used and the techniques used to do this is known as “Use Case Testing.”
23. What is the difference between the STLC (Software Testing Life Cycle) and SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle)?
SDLC deals with development/coding of the software while STLC deals with validation and verification of the software
24.What is the traceability matrix?
The relationship between test cases and requirements is shown with the help of a document. This document is known as a traceability matrix.
25.What is Equivalence partitioning testing?
Equivalence partitioning testing is a software testing technique which divides the application input test data into each partition at least once of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived. By this testing method, it reduces the time required for software testing.
26.What is white box testing and list the types of white box testing?
White box testing technique involves selection of test cases based on an analysis of the internal structure (Code coverage, branches coverage, paths coverage, condition coverage, etc.) of a component or system. It is also known as Code-Based testing or Structural testing. Different types of white box testing are
- Statement Coverage
- Decision Coverage
27. What are the different test levels?
There are four test levels
- Unit/component/program/module testing
- Integration testing
- System testing
- Acceptance testing
28.What Test Plans consist of?
Test design, scope, test strategies, approach are various details that Test plan document consists of.
- Test case identifier
- Features to be tested
- Features not to be tested
- Test strategy & Test approach
- Test deliverables
- Staffing and training
- Risk and Contingencies
29.What is the difference between UAT (User Acceptance Testing) and System testing?
System Testing: System testing is finding defects when the system undergoes testing as a whole; it is also known as end-to-end testing. In such type of testing, the application suffers from beginning till the end.
UAT: User Acceptance Testing (UAT) involves running a product through a series of specific tests which determines whether the product will meet the needs of its users.
30.What are the valuable steps to resolve issues while testing?
- Record: Log and handle any problems which have happened
- Report: Report the issues to higher level manager
- Control: Define the issue management process
31. What is the difference between test scenarios, test cases, and test script?
Difference between test scenarios and test cases is that
Test Scenarios: A Test Scenario is any functionality that can be tested. It is also called Test Condition or Test Possibility.
Test Cases: It is a document that contains the steps that have to be executed; it was planned earlier.
Test Script: It is written in a programming language and it’s a short program used to test part of the functionality of the software system. In other words, a written set of steps that should be performed manually.
32. What is Latent defect?
Latent defect: This defect is an existing defect in the system which does not cause any failure as the exact set of conditions has never been met
33. What are the two parameters which can be useful to know the quality of test execution?
To know the quality of test execution, we can use two parameters
- Defect reject ratio
- Defect leakage ratio
These questions assess a candidate’s knowledge and skills related to software testing, including testing techniques, tools, methodologies, and best practices. Before these interviews, candidates need to study common software testing concepts and practice their skills through practical exercises and real-world situations. By doing so, candidates can increase their chances of success and demonstrate their suitability for the software testing role they are applying for.
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